"Balkan Horizons" is a bi-monthly Newsletter on democracy and
civil society issues. It is published by the Association for
Democracy in the Balkans.
Center for Defense Information
The American foremost military research organisation.
Centre Interdisciplinaire de Recherches sur la Paix et
Centro de Relaciones Internacionales
y Cooperación Internacional
In Spanish, Catalan and English.
European Union - Common Foreign & Security Policy (CFSP)
The CFSP was established as the second pillar of the European
Union in the 1993 Treaty on European Union signed at
Maastricht. A number of important changes were introduced in
the Amsterdam Treaty which came into force in 1999, and since
then there have been numerous developments in CFSP. It has
been agreed to embark on a common security and defence policy
(CESDP) within the overall framework of the CFSP. Work has
continued apace. The European Council at Laeken of 14-15
December 2001 adopted a declaration on the operational
capability of the ESDP , officially recognising that the Union
is now capable of conducting some crisis management operations.
Interim structures established after the Amsterdam treaty have
become permanent. With the Nice Treaty , certain amendments to
the CFSP provisions of the treaty were agreed. All these
developments are described in more detail below.
European Union in the World - Foreign Policies
Research and Information on Peace and security - Europe,
international security and sustainable development
GRIP's main aims are study, research, information and training
on problems of peace, defence and disarmament with a view to
improving international security in Europe and throughout the
world. GRIP studies in particular the way in which the arms
race operates and how security and defence needs are assessed.
GRIP is independent and pluralist, and attempts to conduct
scrupulously scientific studies.
International Relations and Security Network
A Swiss Contribution to Partnership for Peace
Interpol - Terrorism
INTERPOL’s involvement in the fight against International
Terrorism materialized during the 54th General Assembly in
Washington in 1985 when Resolution AGN/54/RES/1 (Washington,
D.C., 1985) was passed calling for the creation of a
specialized group within the then Police Division to '…co-ordinate
and enhance co-operation in combating international terrorism…'
NATO - North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
NATO - Partnership for Peace
Partnership for Peace (PfP) is the basis for practical
security cooperation between NATO and individual Partner
countries (19+1). Activities include defence planning and
budgeting, military exercises and civil emergency operations.
There are now 27 members of PfP, which are all members of the
Organisation for Security and
Co-operation in Europe
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)
is the largest regional security organization in the world
with 55 participating States from Europe, Central Asia and
North America. It is active in early warning, conflict
prevention, crisis management and post-conflict rehabilitation.
The OSCE approach to security is comprehensive and
co-operative: comprehensive in dealing with a wide range of
security-related issues including arms control, preventive
diplomacy, confidence- and security-building measures, human
rights, democratization, election monitoring and economic and
environmental security; co-operative in the sense that all
OSCE participating States have equal status, and decisions are
based on consensus.
The Parallel History
Project on NATO and the Warsaw Pact
to the progressing declassification of NATO documents and the
growing availability of documents from the archives of the
former Soviet bloc, the Parallel History Project on NATO and
the Warsaw Pact (PHP) seeks to collect, analyze, and interpret
these premier sources for the study of contemporary
PDA - Project on
Since its inception in 1991, the Project on Defense
Alternatives has sought to adapt security policy to the
challenges and opportunities of the post-Cold War era. Toward
this end it promotes consideration of the broadest range of
defense options. Central to its mission is the development of
"transitional security policy," which would serve to create
conditions favorable to the advent of regional and global
cooperative security regimes.
International Peace Research Institute
The task of this Institute is to conduct research on questions
of conflict and cooperation of importance for international
peace and security, with the aim of contributing to an
understanding of the conditions for peaceful solutions of
international conflicts and for a stable peace.
Teaching the History of Southeastern Europe Edited by
A great web site to get to know how history teaching can
foster or hinder war.
Institute of Strategic Studies
The IISS is the primary source of accurate, objective
information on international strategic issues for politicians
and diplomats, foreign affairs analysts, international
business, economists, the military, defence commentators,
journalists, academics and the informed public.
UNIDIR - United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research
Proposing new ideas for security thinking, UNIDIR's work
brings together security, disarmament and development so that
all forms of security — national, regional, global — are
recognized as true manifestations of human security.
Western European Union
The web site of the European Defense Organisation created by
the Treaty of Brussels in 1948.
Center for Democracy and Reconciliation in Southeastern Europe
The Center for Democracy and Reconciliation in Southeast
Europe is a non-governmental, non-profit organization that
seeks to foster democratic and pluralistic values, to support
free-market economies that are guided by the rule of law and
by social responsibility, and to encourage reconciliation
among the peoples of the Balkan region.
Counsil of Europe - Democratic Institutions - Making
democratic institutions work
This project is the Council of Europe's response to one of the
major challenges facing Europe today - to ensure that
democratic institutions support and enter into dialogue with
all Europeans, including groups that have been, for various
reasons, excluded from equal participation in the democratic
European Initiative for Democracy and Human Rights
The European Initiative for Democracy and Human Rights (EIDHR)
is a European Union programme that aims to promote and support
human rights and democracy in third countries.
Institute for Democracy in
The Institute for Democracy in Eastern Europe (IDEE) is a
not-for-profit tax-exempt corporation begun in 1986 to support
the growing opposition movements in Eastern Europe seeking
democratic change and an end to communism.
IDEE provided critical financial and material assistance to
independent publications and human rights and opposition
groups at the forefront of the 1989-91 revolutions. Since
1989, IDEE has helped democrats in the region overcome
communism's harsh and oppressive legacy and rebuild - or build
anew -- the institutions of a democratic political system and
a plural and open society.
Politeia - The
network for citizenship and democracy in Europe
The network for citizenship and democracy in Europe is a
virtual organization of more than 1500 persons and
institutions that are active in the field of citizenship and
political education and wishing to cooperate at European level.
The goal of the network is to promote the social and political
participation of the European citizens.
Democracy - Experience Europe
The democracy experience is created by COPE - Campaign for
Open Politics in Europe. COPE is a non-profit organisation,
based in Brussels, which has been set up by a bunch of young
people and a few of the more progressive European
Parliamentarians - who belive that : politicians, parties and
parliaments have lost touch with the will of their electorates;
more people could and should be involved in the political
neutral, non-partisan and non-institutional platforms are the
political arena of the future; and the European
decision-making and the integration process should be more
democratic and open
The European Network for
"The war on freedom and democracy" - an analysis of the
effects on civil liberties and democratic culture in the EU
According to Tony Bunyan, the article author's, The "war on
terrorism" has turned into an ongoing "war on freedom and
democracy" which is now setting new norms - where
accountability, scrutiny and human rights protections are
luxuries to be curtailed or discarded in defence of "democracy".
Aids: Europe's new iron curtain
Article in BBC-Health in November 2002.
Combatting Racism and Xenophobia
Council of Europe's web site dedicated to minorities
Education Pack - Ideas, resources, methods and activities
for informal intercultural education with young people and
EU - Justice and Home Affairs - Immigration and Asylum
The policy on asylum, the free movement of persons, visa
policy, rules governing the crossing of the EU's external
borders, immigration policy and the rights of nationals of
third countries have become a full Community responsibility
with the entry into force of the Treaty of Amsterdam on 1 May
European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI)
European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI) was
set up following a decision of the 1st Summit of
Heads of State and Government of the member States of the
Council of Europe, held in Vienna in October 1993, and
strengthened by a decision of the 2nd Summit held
in Strasbourg in October 1997. ECRI's task is to combat racism,
xenophobia, antisemitism and intolerance at the level of
greater Europe and from the perspective of the protection of
European Conference against Racism
Following the decision of the United Nations General
Assembly in December 1997 to convene a World Conference
against racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related
intolerance, the then Presidency of the European Union (Luxembourg)
proposed that the Council of Europe should be entrusted with
the preparation, at European level, of the World Conference,
notably in the form of a European Conference on this topic.
Health-AIDS-EU: EU Commission confirms battle against
AIDS on World AIDS Day
Article on AFP web in December 2001.
Instead of fighting against AIDS, Europe fights against
Article on the web site Act Up-Paris about Sevilla EU
summit in June 2002.
The European Bureau for Lesser Used Languages
EBLUL speaks on behalf of over 40 millions EU
citizens who speak a different language to the majority
language of their State
Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and
Treaty open for signature by the member States of the Council
European Committee for the
prevention of torture and inhuman or degrading treatment or
Court of Human Rights
In addition to laying down a catalogue of civil and political
rights and freedoms, the Convention for the Protection of
Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms set up a system of
enforcement of the obligations entered into by Contracting
States. Three institutions were entrusted with this
responsibility: the European Commission of Human Rights (set
up in 1954), the European Court of Human Rights (set up in
1959) and the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe,
the latter organ being composed of the Ministers for Foreign
Affairs of the member States or their representatives.
Europe and the New Independent States - International
Religious Freedom 1999
Articles on Religious Freedom in every European country.
Freedominfo - the online network of freedom of information
This site is a one-stop portal that describes best practices,
consolidates lessons learned, explains campaign strategies and
tactics, and links the efforts of freedom of information
advocates around the world.
Migration News summarizes the most important immigration and
integration developments of the preceding month. This American
web site covers in depth EU news on immigration.
Statewatch - monitoring the state and civil liberties in
the European Union
Statewatch is a non-profit-making voluntary group founded in
1991. It is comprised of lawyers, academics, journalists,
researchers and community activists. Its European network of
contributors is drawn from 12 countries. Statewatch encourages
the publication of investigative journalism and critical
research in the fields of the state, civil liberties and
The European Convention on Human Rights- 1950
The EU's Human rights & Democratisation Policy
ATTAC (Association pour une taxation des transactions pour l'aide aux
Corpwatch - Holding Corporations accountable
An excellent web site to know the behaviour of European corporations in
European Social Charter
International Labour Organization
UNESCO Institute for Statistics
Global and internationally comparable
statistics on education, science, technology, culture and
To know about the big corporations that dominate international
coalition against corruption.
Activities of the EU - Education
Commision for Racial Equality
A British institution created to foster racial equality.
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
(CEDAW), adopted in 1979 by the UN General Assembly, is often described as an
international bill of rights for women.
Council of Europe’s web site dedicated to equality between women and men
Equal Opportunities Commission
Other British centre to promote equal opportunities.
EU - Education and Training
Our challenge in the Directorate-General for Education and Culture is to help
preserve the best of the diversity of educational experience in Europe, while
harnessing it to raise standards, remove obstacles to learning opportunities
and meet the educational requirements of the 21st century.
Higher Education Equality Unit
The role of the Irish organisation Higher Education Equality Unit/Aonad
Comhionannas Deise um Ard-Oideachas (HEEU) is to promote equality of
access and opportunity in Irish higher Education institutions, for both staff
and students. The HEEU works to enable colleges to develop effective equality
policies and practices, having regard to issues of socio-economic/class
background, gender, race/ethnicity/nationality, disability, age, sexual
orientation, family/care responsibilities, and religious or political belief.
The HEEU is a national body, established in 1992 and funded by the Higher
Eurostat is the Statistical Office of the
European Communities situated in Luxembourg. Its task is to
provide the European Union with statistics at European level
that enable comparisons between countries and regions. Without
data we cannot evaluate the reality and evolution of the
Swedish EU Relay
Very interesting web site dealing with a wide range of topics.
From the right to vote to the neonazi movements, from gender equality to EU
defence and security policy, from animal mistreatment to enviromental problems.
A good site to know about social values and European integration process.
The World Bank - Data & Statistics
Almost all the data reported in this site are derived, either
directly or indirectly, from official statistical systems organized and financed
by national governments.
data we cannot evaluate the reality and evolution of the