Count Coudenhove Kalergi
founded the Movement Pan-Europe
Paneuropean Congress, held in Vienna.
Briand, French prime minister, called
for a federation of European nations in a celebrated speech in the presence of League of Nations Assembly.
Winston Churchill calls for a United States of Europe in a speech given at the Zurich University.
The European Federalists Union is established in Paris.
The Organization for
European Economic co-operation (OEEC) was established to administer and organize
the dellivery of the Plan Marshal's massive economic aid.
The International Co-ordination of Movements for the
Unification of Europe Committee, chaired by Winston
Churchill, meets in the Hague.
of the NATO.
In a speech inspired by Jean Monnet, Robert
Schuman, the French Foreign Minister, proposes that France and Germany and any
other European country wishing to join them pool their Coal and Steel resources
A meeting to consider the creation of a European Community of
Defence is held in Paris. Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg and Germany attend
the meeting alongside six observer countries - the United States, Canada,
Denmark, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom.
The Treaty of Paris,
establishing the European Coal and Steel Community
(ECSC), is signed.
The Six (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg,
Netherlands) sign in Paris the European Defence Community (EDC) Treaty
The ECSC Treaty enters into force. Jean Monnet is appointed
President of the High Authority.
The Council of Europe adopts as it emblem the blue flag with 12
golden stars on it.
The treaties establishing the European Economic Community
(EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) are signed by Belgium,
France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands in Rome - from then on referred
to as the Treaty of Rome.
A conference held in Stresa (Italy) lays down the basis of a
common agricultural policy (CAP).
The European Court of Justice is set up in Luxembourg.
Austria, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland and
the United Kingdom, decide to establish a European Free Trade Association
The Organisation for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC)
becomes the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).
French President General Charles de Gaulle doubts the
political will of the United Kingdom to join the community - giving rise to his
famous "non" to British membership of the EEC.
Luxembourg Compromise. France, after operating an "empty
chair" policy for seven months, resumes its place in the Council in return
for retention of the unanimity vote when major interests are at stake.
The United Kingdom re-applies to join the Community, followed
by Ireland, and Denmark. General de Gaulle is still reluctant to accept British
Denmark, Ireland, and the United Kingdom sign the treaties of
accession to the European Communities.
A referendum is held in Norway on the country joining the
European Communities. The majority is unfavourable to accession.
At a meeting of the European Council in Rome, ministers decide
to establish a European Parliament elected by universal suffrage.
Spanish accession negotiations formally open in Brussels.
The European Monetary System enters into force.
The first elections to the European Parliament by direct
universal suffrage are held.
Greece joins the European Communities.
The draft Treaty on the establishment of the European Union (Spinelli
draft) is passed by the European Parliament by a large majority.
The new Commission takes office with Jacques Delors, a
Frenchman, as its President.
The Schengen Agreement on the elimination of border controls
is signed by Belgium, Germany, France, Luxembourg and the Netherlands in
The Single European Act, modifying the Treaty of Rome and
extending majority voting, is signed.
Spain and Portugal join the European Communities.
Margaret Thatcher gave a eurosceptic speech at the
College of Europe in Bruges (Belgium).
fall of the Berlin Wall.
The collapse of communism peaked in 1991 with the Soviet Union
The disintegration of Yugoslavia brought the war again to our
A European Council Summit is held in Maastricht. It reaches an
agreement on the draft treaty on the European monetary union.
The Treaty on the European Union is signed in Maastricht by
the Foreign and Finance Ministers of the Member States.
Norwegian referendum rejects accession to the European Union.
Finland and Sweden become members of the European Union.
The Treaty of Amsterdam was signed by
the Foreign Ministers of the fifteen member countries of the European Union.
The European Council meets in Amsterdam and reaches a
consensus on a draft treaty for a new phase of economic and monetary union and
adopts a resolution on growth and employment.
The single currency, the euro, was launched on 1 January.
Eleven member states adopted the new currency but three countries - Denmark,
Sweden, and the UK - decided to defer a decision. The new currency has not been
a resounding success - in its first year its value fell by about 30% in relation
to other leading currencies.
The Cologne European Council adopts the first European Union
common strategy, which concerns Russia, and declarations on Kosovo and on the
strengthening of European common foreign and security policy, and designates Mr
Javier Solana Madariaga High Representative for the CFSP and Secretary-General
of the Council.
After a scathing report
suggesting corruption and mismanagement in the European Commission, all 20
commissioners and the president, Jacques Santer, were forced to step down.
The opening session of the Ministerial Intergovernemental
Conferences for accession negotiations of Malta, Romania, Slovakia, Latvia,
Lithuania and Bulgaria, is held in Brussels.
Following the December 2000 European Council meeting held in
Nice, France, a new Treaty amending the Treaty on European Union and the
Treaties establishing the European Communities, is signed (Treaty of Nice).